陈德荣 |“一带一路”是塑造中国跨国公司的历史机遇

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2016-12-17

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陈德荣 |“一带一路”是塑造中国跨国公司的历史机遇

中国宝武钢铁集团有限公司总经理陈德荣在第九届国际跨国公司领袖圆桌会议上的讲话

Speech by Mr. Chen Derong, President of China Baowu Steel Group Corporation Limited, at the 9th International Roundtable of Multinational Corporations' Leaders


非常荣幸能够参加今天这个高层次的论坛。今天论坛的关键词是“跨国公司与一带一路”,可以理解为中国企业如何利用“一带一路”的国家倡议,成长为真正意义上的跨国公司。现在我结合钢铁行业,谈几点个人认识与看法。


第一,中国改革开放过程是现代企业的培育过程,“一带一路”是中国的第三次大开发,是塑造中国跨国公司的历史机遇。1978年十一届三中全会从计划向有计划的商品经济转变,中国企业开始有单纯的工厂逐步具备现代企业之路。2001年,加入WTO使中国完全融入世界经济体系,中国通过大量引入外资,建立了工业体系,中国钢铁在这一时期得到高速发展,中国的大企业集群开始形成。2013年以“一带一路”为标志的第三次开放是中国的“走出去”开放。通过推进自贸区建设,以及“一带一路”形成东西互动,南北互通,海陆融合,内外一体的全方位开放新格局,逐步将中国企业打造成为全球化的跨国公司。


第二,中国大企业离跨国公司或者全球化公司的标准还有相当大的差距。国际化经营能力是衡量中国企业转型升级的一大标准,现在每年财富500强榜单中,中国企业入围的名单越来越多了。我国500强大企业虽多,但是真正意义上跨国公司并不多。虽然宝钢和宝武入围2015年非金融类跨国公司100强,分别名列第44位和86位,但是我本人并不认为宝武钢铁已经是一家严格意义上的跨国公司了。与世界主流钢铁企业相比,我们的国际化指数还很低,还不到10%,而日韩钢企业多已超过30%。全球最大的钢企早已超过跨国公司的概念,是名副其实的全球化公司,即便印度的钢铁,塔塔这样的跨国国际化指数也远高于中国同行。中国钢企收入仍局限于产品出口,资产集中在资源类投资,这目的是确保稳定的供应,实际上是服务于国内经营的。所以中国钢企在全球投资,国际资本运作,海外研发中心建设等全球资源配置方面是弱项,亟待提高国际化的层次,而这正是我们衡量产业是否实现转型的一大标准。


第三,钢铁业在推进“一带一路”国际产能合作中要跳出两大误区。2015年7月国务院发布了关于推进国际产能和装备制造合作的指导意见,确定了12个行业为国际产能和装备制造合作的重点行业,其中钢铁产业位列第一。我们可以发现这12个行业,基本上都是产能过剩比较严重,并且较具比较优势的行业。以钢铁行业为例,“一带一路”沿线的东南亚、南亚、中东、东亚和非洲等地区,钢铁制造装备非常落后,中国目前绝大多数所谓的落后产能,在这些地方都是相对先进产能。这些产能与其在国内报废,不如以低价或者援建方式向这些地区进行转移。在推进国际产能合作过程中我们要避免国内产业发展过程中适用,但是在海外并不适用的误区。不是规模越大越好,也不是装备技术水平越高越好,适合的才是最好的。


第四,中国钢铁已经具备了“走出去”的条件,“一带一路”助推中国钢铁业从产品输出转向产能输出,最重要是向资本输出时代迈进。全球制造业转移路径已经十分明晰,正在由中国向丝路国家东南亚、南亚和非洲低要素成本地区转移。钢铁本身作为典型的制造业,又是制造业当中的原材料产业,其产业转移的路径更加明晰。全球钢铁产业历史上经历了四次大的转移,分别从英国到美国到前苏联,以及到日本到中国。我们判断第五次转移的方向应该是环印度洋区域,这正好与“一带一路”区域相契合。目前中国钢铁每年超过1亿吨产品出口的国际化模式难以为继,接下来变产品输出为产能输出和资本输出的时机已经成熟。


中国国内钢铁需求趋于饱和,产能严重过剩,投资收益不断下降,钢铁产业,资本需要寻找更好的出路。中国钢铁长期优质廉价的规模出口,积累了巨大的海外客户基础,具备了属地化制造的市场条件。中国的钢产建设和运营方面的经验和娴熟的技术,以及成套钢铁制造装备的供应能力,使得中国投资成本效率最高,钢铁是我国制造业少数具有海外直接投资的流程性产业之一。


中国钢铁企业服务转型已经全面启动,目前正处于服务转型的关键阶段,服务转型的成功与否需要更加苛刻的海外用户的体验,亟待通过属地化研发,制造提供更贴身的制造服务,增值服务。因此国际化是中国钢铁企业实现服务转型的一道门槛,现在已经到了必须跨越的时候了。


宝武集团在“一带一路”中推进国际产能合作的战略思路。作为央企,宝武钢铁积极参与国家“一带一路”倡议,我们将企业的国际化战略与国家的“一带一路”倡议结合起来,重新谋划布局公司的国际化行动方案。首先将公司未来的国际化重点区域确定为环印度洋区域。其次结合去产能的要求,在做好内部去产能工作的同时,与国际产能合作为突破口,谋划将先进优势的产能向重点国家输出转移。


第三,论证组建产业投资发展基金,参与钢铁与相关产业的海内外风险投资。


第四,公司积极利用八一钢铁和湛江钢铁,分别作为陆上和海上丝绸之路桥头堡地理区域优势,参加中巴基经济走廊等基础设施建设,力争成为基础设施建设钢铁材料的优秀供应商。

各位领导、各位来宾,中国宝武钢铁集团已经在12月1日正式揭牌成立。作为一家新组建的中字头央企,积极饯行和落实“一带一路”国家倡议是我们义不容辞的责任。我们根据自身能力特点,以及全球钢铁业国际化的经验教训,努力走出一条适合中国钢铁产业国际化发展的新路,力争使宝武钢铁成为中国钢铁业国际化发展的典范,早日使宝武钢铁成为一家真正的跨国公司,谢谢大家。

 

I’m glad to attend this high-level Roundtable. The key word of this Roundtable is 'multinational company and Belt and Road Initiative', so this means that Chinese companies need to better respond to the initiative to become real multinational companies, so I would like to share with you my personal views as someone froma steel background.


First, in the process of reform and reopening, Chinese companies have developed themselves rapidly by receiving opportunities after 1978 when china started its opening up. The opening-up policy has helped the Chinese economy transform from a planned one to a market-based one. Chinese companies are developing their own modern corporate system. In 2001, with China' accession to WTO, China has become more and fully integrated into the global economy. China began to attract investment, and in this process Chinese steel companies also developed rapidly.There are many big steel clusters in China. The third stage of going global is featured with the Belt and Road Initiative. With interaction between the western and eastern regions as well as the opening of domestic regions and coastalregions, Chinese companies have become more globalized and become multinational companies.


Second, we believe that there’s still a big gap between the Chinese companies and other truly global multinational companies. We need to improve our capabilities. Every year more and more Chinese companies become members of the Fortune 500. Although we have large numbers, very few of them are real multinational companies. The Bao Steel and Wu Steel were top 100 in terms of non-financial multinational companies, but personally I do not believe that either Bao steel or Wu Steel or the combined Baowu Steel is a multinational company in real sense compared with other mainstream global steel companies. We only have less than 10% of our businesses present overseas. The world's largest steel company is a true global company with a strong overseas presence, and in India, the Tata group also has a figure far higher than the Chinese companies. Our overseas assets are most in a form of an investment in the resources in order to ensure the stable supply. Therefore, in terms of development of R&D centers and international businesses, these are all weaknesses for Chinese companies. We need to become truly global and transform our businesses.


Thirdly, in promoting Belt and Road production capacity cooperation, we need to avoid two traps. In 2015, the State Council released a guideline on promoting production capacity cooperation, setting out 12 priority areas. The iron steel sector is the top category. We have found that almost all of these categories are industries with over capacity. Taking the steel industry for example, southeast Asia, south Asia, central Asia and Africa, they have very backward steel production equipment. Backward production capacity in China has become relatively advanced production capacity in these regions and it is possible that these facilities may be transformed into these other agents. We must avoid two mistakes: first, bigger does not mean a better; second, it is not the case that most advanced technologies are the most applicable ones. The Belt and Road will help Chinese steel companies to export its productivity instead of exporting its equipment, so we have a clear path.


For the production capacity cooperation starting from China to the southeast Asian countries and Africa, for the global steel industry, it has undergone four major transformations in history, from the US to the UK to former Soviet Union to Japan to China and we believe that the fifth transformation will happen in the Indian ocean region which consistent with the Belt and Road region. Each year we have large amount of steel export. As such export modality is not sustainable, now we domestically have excessive over capacity and lowering profits. Therefore, we need to find a way out. Secondly, by export, we have accumulated a very good share of overseas market, and thirdly, we have rich experience of operation in terms of the steel businesses. We also have a capability of steel production, so have the lowest cost and the best cost performance in terms of steel industry, and we also have a whole chain industry.


We are also providing better services and we’re now in the process of providing better services which will undergo the test of the overseas clients and we will offer considerate manufacturing services and value added services. Therefore, Chinese steel companies need to overcome all these big difficulties and challenges. The Baowu steel group as a state-owned enterprise has been actively involved in the national Belt and Road strategy. We have set out our international development strategy which is consistent with the Belt and Road development initiative. In the years ahead, our focal region will be the Indian Ocean region. While reducing our domestic over-capacity, we will cooperate well with other countries so that our advanced productivity will be exported to other focal regions. We will also involve in risk investment related to steel, and we will make use of the geographical advantages of our subsidiary companies to participate in the economic corridor development between China, Mongolia and Russia, as well as between China and some other Asian countries. We will try to become a supplier of advanced steels.


Ladies and gentlemen, Baowu Group has already been launched on the first of December this year, which is the newest major SOE supervised by the central government, so this is abounded duty to contribute to the implementation of the Belt and Road initiative and draw on the lessons and experiences of international iron steel companies. We will try to find a new path to our global operations, and try to turn Baowu Group into a real multinational at an early day. Thank you.


以上内容根据速记稿整理。